Substring with Concatenation of All Words
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# LeetCode #30: Substring with Concatenation of All Words (C/C++).

hard

source: https://leetcode.com/problems/substring-with-concatenation-of-all-words/
C/C++ Solution to LeetCode problem 30. Substring with Concatenation of All Words.

## Problem

You are given a string s and an array of strings words. All the strings of words are of the same length.

A concatenated substring in s is a substring that contains all the strings of any permutation of words concatenated.

For example, if words = ["ab","cd","ef"], then "abcdef", "abefcd", "cdabef", "cdefab", “efabcd”, and “efcdab” are all concatenated strings. "acdbef" is not a concatenated substring because it is not the concatenation of any permutation of words.

Return the starting indices of all the concatenated substrings in s. You can return the answer in any order.

## Examples

### Example 1:

Input: s = “barfoothefoobarman”, words = [“foo”,”bar”]
Output: [0,9]
Explanation: Since words.length == 2 and words[i].length == 3, the concatenated substring has to be of length 6.
The substring starting at 0 is “barfoo”. It is the concatenation of [“bar”,”foo”] which is a permutation of words.
The substring starting at 9 is “foobar”. It is the concatenation of [“foo”,”bar”] which is a permutation of words.
The output order does not matter. Returning [9,0] is fine too.

### Example 2:

Input: s = “wordgoodgoodgoodbestword”, words = [“word”,”good”,”best”,”word”]
Output: []
Explanation: Since words.length == 4 and words[i].length == 4, the concatenated substring has to be of length 16.
There is no substring of length 16 is s that is equal to the concatenation of any permutation of words.
We return an empty array.

### Example 3:

Input: s = “barfoofoobarthefoobarman”, words = [“bar”,”foo”,”the”]
Output: [6,9,12]
Explanation: Since words.length == 3 and words[i].length == 3, the concatenated substring has to be of length 9.
The substring starting at 6 is “foobarthe”. It is the concatenation of [“foo”,”bar”,”the”] which is a permutation of words.
The substring starting at 9 is “barthefoo”. It is the concatenation of [“bar”,”the”,”foo”] which is a permutation of words.
The substring starting at 12 is “thefoobar”. It is the concatenation of [“the”,”foo”,”bar”] which is a permutation of words.

## Constraints

• 1 <= s.length <= 104
• 1 <= words.length <= 5000
• 1 <= words[i].length <= 30
• s and words[i] consist of lowercase English letters.

## Solution

We can generate a hast table with all the possible permutations of words, then compare every substring from s to see if found in the hash table. But this solution will be very slow.

Another solution (but still, not the optimal one), is the next one (at the moment I haven’t come up with a better idea, probably using a sliding window technique).

• In a hash map, we store and count the words.
• Iterating through the string, if a substring of size words starting from the current position, is found, then
• We get a substring of length equal to the length of all the words.
• We start removing a sub-substring at the begining and looking in the map to see if found,
• If found, then we decrease the counting.
• If the counting is 0 we remove it from the map.
• Once we finish with this substring, if the map is empty, then we found a match.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 class Solution { public: vector<int> findSubstring(string s, vector<string>& words) { int subLength = words.size() * words.size(); if (s.size() < subLength) return {}; vector<int> result; map <string, int> c1; for (int w=0; w<words.size(); w++) c1[words[w]]++; for (int i=0; i<=(s.size() - subLength); i++) { if (c1.find(s.substr(i, words.size())) == c1.end()) continue; map <string, int> c2 = c1; string tmp = s.substr(i, subLength); while (tmp.size()) { if (c2.find(tmp.substr(0, words.size())) != c2.end()) { c2[tmp.substr(0, words.size())] --; if (c2[tmp.substr(0, words.size())] == 0) c2.erase(tmp.substr(0, words.size())); } tmp = tmp.substr(words.size()); } if (c2.size() == 0) result.push_back(i); } return result; } };